Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) programmes have been increasingly established across the globe in the last few years. PES is a type of market-based instrument that is increasingly used to finance nature conservation. PES programmes allow for the translation of the ecosystem services (ES) that ecosystems provide for free into financial incentives for their conservation, targeted at the local actors who own or manage the natural resources. Under OPERAs the aim is to explore the potential of PES to protect and improve our Natural Capital. In order to do so, the policy demand, the information needs, the strong and weak points, and the potential benefits and risks of PES are being analysed.