This work was conducted globally (global analysis of climate funding and climate projects) and with case studies in several countries (Brazil, Indonesia, Vietnam, Peru, and the Philippines).
We have explored the opportunities and trade‐offs of managing ecosystems for both climate change mitigation and adaptation. We have also analyzed how policy development integrated adaptation and mitigation in Brazil, Indonesia, Vietnam, Peru, and the Philippines.
Although many ecosystem management activities can jointly contribute to the climate change strategies of adaptation and mitigation, climate policies have generally treated these strategies separately. In recent years, there has been a growing interest shown by practitioners and policymakers in agriculture, forestry, and landscape management in the links between the two strategies.
Findings of the global comparative analysis shed light on the opportunities and barriers for a better integration of adaptation and mitigation into climate policies. Results are transferable beyond the selected countries.
The incorporation of adaptation and mitigation objectives into policy-making of sectoral policies requires the removal of internal contradictions among policies: these contradictions are clear in some analyzed cases where integrated approaches led to lose–lose rather than win–win situations.