'Comparing the cost effectiveness of nature-based and coastal adaptation: A case study from the Gulf Coast of the United States' has recently been published in Plos One. The paper finds that wetland and reef restoration in the Gulf can yield benefit-to-cost ratios of above 3.5 on average, meaning more than $3.50 in direct flood-reduction benefits for every $1 spent on restoration. In contrast, many artificial solutions (such as levees and home elevation) have benefit-to-cost ratios near or below one-to-one. The study applied the applied the Economics of Climate Adaptation approach.
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