Approaches to financing nature-based solutions in cities

Prepared in the framework of the Horizon 2020 project GrowGreen (, this working document presents an overview of financing approaches that can be used to deliver nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban areas. It includes a typology of financing mechanisms from the perspective of city authorities, with brief descriptions of each mechanism (including prerequisites for implementation and limitations) and illustrative city examples. The document is in draft form; further case studies will be added. We invite researchers and practitioners to contribute case study examples of how particular financing instruments were applied in cities, as well as suggestions of additional financing options (please send suggestions to