OpenNESS Synthesis paper: Ecosystem services and transdisciplinarity

Similar to related approaches such as post-normal science, citizens science, participatory approaches, transdisciplinarity (TD) goes beyond multi- and interdisciplinary research by co-creating knowledge with and for societal actors. Therefore the language, the concepts and the methodology used in TD are not solely scientific phenomena but jointly produced in the interaction between science, practice and policy.

Associated Oppla members