In addition to their traditional local use in human and animal food, the fruits of the carob tree have a high commercial value in industrial transformation. The demand for fruits and seeds is growing significantly and their commercial value is increasing. It is also an undemanding species, since it is found in various bioclimatic levels (humid, subhumid, semi-arid and arid) and on poor and skeletal soils. The objective of this work is to explore a panel of varieties to be characterized by describing the tree, fruits, and seeds in an illustrated form.
Case studies tagged with wild harvested
Aleppo pine seeds (commonly called Zgougou) derive all their originality and nobility from the fact that they are consumed by Tunisians as part of their cooking habits. Zgougou is considered one of the most interesting NWFP due to socio-economic role and commercial value. Aleppo pine seed oil can be extracted as for nutrition, or for medicinal and cosmetic uses.
The present work studies the conditions of exploitation of seeds in the forest, the yield of vegetable oil extracted, its physicochemical qualities and the possibilities of valorizing the press cake obtained after...
The objective was to evaluate the loss of moisture in pine cone during the storage after harvest, comparing the storage inside a warehouse or just under a shed. This information is intended to support the producer in deciding when to sell, at the beginning, during or at the end of the commercialization campaign, taking into account not only the market price / kg but also the weight loss of the pine cone due to the loss of moisture.
This work aims the improvement of lentisk oil extraction in order to enable rural women to improve their working conditions and their incomes through the sale of this oil.
On the other hand, this work aims to make women aware of the importance of conserving the natural heritage of their region and, to encourage them to take positive ownership of their environment.
Silvo-pastoral systems are quite common in the Alentejo region of south Portugal. Bringing together economic profitability and ecological sustainability is challenging and requires a conscientious management.
We present the example of a young forest owner who manages a farm in south Portugal composed of a mixture of cork oak and stone pine grazed by cattle.
The recognition of severe soil degradation problems and the effort in its recovery has been the priority of this owner. The management options carried out in the last 15 years are now positively reflected...
Solve the problem of the fragility of oak acorns used for reforestation and animal feed by improving the process of their conservation for a period close to a year.
The forest area of stone pine, Pinus pinea, has increased significantly in Portugal in the last 30 years, following the same trend of other Mediterranean countries. At the same time, forest stakeholders report losses in cone production and yield and question on the best management practices to face a already changing climate.
During a Science to Practice event entitled "Stone pine and pine nuts: more knowledge for a better management" held in Lisbon in October 2019, we conducted a survey were we were able to assess the stakeholders' concerns with the pine nut value chain...
The aim of this work was to valorize Arbutus unedo by its regeneration in vivo and in vitro, also by characterizing of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of leaves and fruits in order to evaluate and improve the potential value of this plant.
The success story of the company Santiago Perea S.L. in the processing of pine nuts in Andalusia (Southern Spain) is presented here. The commitment of this company to innovation since its creation in 1950 has led to its outstanding positioning in the sector. The main milestones in the history of the company and the most notable elements of its business model are described below.
At a first glance, imported Asiatic and genuine Mediterranean pine nuts seem to be similar in size, colour and aspect. Cheaper Chinese chestnuts can also be confused with European chestnuts, when botanic species and origin are not declared on the label, despite this information being mandatory by UNECE marketing standards (2013).
However, aspects such as nutritional values and processing quality, sustainability of collection from wild and of course the taste are highly important. Consumer awareness is vital in this regard. Hence , supply chain actors in the Mediterranean should work...
Faced with changes and in the absence of regeneration, the natural forest formations in the North of Tunisia are experiencing serious problems of degradation. The use of pines as alternative species would be a possible and advantageous solution, but the choice should be given in priority to fast-growing species, ecologically well adapted and economically profitable.
Climate change is affecting the health and productivity of the Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea) stands in the Spanish Northern Plateau. The main research lines for adapting this forest ecosystrems and mitigating the effect of climate change are presented. The finding should lead to recommendations for the future management of these stands.
The objective is to analyze the possibility of modeling the kernel weight from biometric and morphological parameters of the pine nuts from Pinus pinea, measured through X – ray and image analysis. The overall objective is to support the definition of a pine cone quality assessment methodology at the stand/ farm level in order to provide the landowners with tools for pine cone commercialization and increase by this mean the market transparency.
Chestnut is a seasonal nut only produced in some regions of Portugal. It is a product whose value is very scattered across the various elements of the marketing chain, with little, and very concentrated in time, internal consumption. It is, therefore, vital to increase and retain its added value and make this market less dependent on the seasonality of the fruit. One way is by promoting new forms of consumption in and out of season, through the processing and innovative uses of the chestnut.
Chestnut orchards are one of the most profitable crops in the Montesinho Natural Park (PNM) area, with chestnuts representing a large share of many families' income. Besides the fruit, other products make it a multifunctional culture, among them, honey. This and other beekeeping derived goods represent a way to value the existing flora and to promote a territory with reduced harmful human impact (e.g. pollution). This product is probably what best characterizes this natural park, revealing the intricacies of this region on its flavour.
Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone harvesting in Portugal continues to occur trough the traditional way, that is, by specialized workers that climb the trees and remove the cones by hand using special tools.
Here we intend to document photographically this traditional knowledge, present the various tools used by cone pickers in the harvesting process and the materials used to build them. This information can be potentialy usefull in other coutries were cone harvesting is made by small, locally operating family firms.
Emilia Romagna is well known for some gastronomic excellences with European P.O.D. and P.G.I. labels, such as parmesan cheese and balsamic vinegar. However, many other local agri-food supply chains, not recognized with specific labels, don’t find adequate visibility in the gastronomic offer of the Region. In order to raise awareness also on these local products, the Modena chamber of commerce decided to create the label "Traditions and Flavours of Modena" that is used to support the promotion of niche gastronomic products, such as wild bilberries of the Modena Apennines.
The objective of the present study is to better understand the relationship between tree characteristics and cone production of Mediterranean stone pine. This was achieved by quantifying the gain in using detailed crown metrics in estimating cone production at individual tree level (number of cones per tree and average cone weight). Models based on traditional variables (tree size and stand characteristics) were compared to models that relied on crown metrics extracted from TLS data. The resulting models should help owners and managers to better predict cone production.
The aim of this work was to quantify the extent of the recent decline observed in pine nut and kernel production. For this purpose, we analysed data from the INIA long-term sample plot network for cone and pine nut production in the four main Spanish stone pine regions. Data series for more than a hundred plots since the last century, previous to the arrival of the bug, were compared with the same series after its arrival. Hence, the collapse in kernel per cone yield since can be quantified, the implied main factors identified, and the evidence of L. occidentalis causality...
Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is one of the most drought-tolerant pine species and it is distributed over large drought-prone Mediterranean regions. The determination of the water balance of the soil-crop-climate and its fluctuation is difficult to achieve, due to the spatial variation in site conditions (Schiller and Cohen, 1998). The objectives of this study are to (1) estimate crop water requirements (ETc) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of Tunisian Aleppo pine and (2) study the impact of climate change on water balance, using the WEAP-MABIA Module (Yates et al.,...
MicodataSIG relies on a set of protocols and technologies for the diagnosis of mycological resources aiming to implement a Territorial Information System. The goal is to provide technical information as well as disseminating to the society over the production and sustainable management of the main edible wild mushrooms in Castilla y León region, Spain.
Diversify the tourism offer in Trentino Alto-Adige (Italy), a famous destination that attracts thousands of tourists for its mountain trails and hundreds of miles of ski slopes. A diversification of local tourism offer, involving local stakeholders and supported by a specific territorial marketing strategy, can bring benefits to small farmers, restaurants and many other local actors, especially in the marginal area of the region. One of the main goals of the "route" is to assure a constant flux of tourists all year long, offering interesting activities and events in all seasons.
Rational fertilization can improve tree health, growth and potentially benefit pine cone and pine nut production. The reduction of forest exploitation costs without neglecting environmental factors and promoting biodiversity is an important management achievement in the context of climate change.
To establish fertilizer recommendations in stone pine for cone production, it is crucial to evaluate soil fertility, tree nutritional status and, if irrigated, the quality of the irrigation water. Here we present part of the results of the operational group FERTIPINEA, focused on the...
The best option for highly atomised sectors is to have a common positioning that brings together as many products as possible, by creating an umbrella brand that provides added value. PEFC Spain enables forest certification for wild products by means of grouping all producers and forest products managed under sustainability criteria under a recognized brand. This enhances an economic activities compatible with forest conservation and undertaken by thousands of people in Spanish rural areas.
The PEFC certification for wild food chains of custody (CoC) can help to improve the...
The aim is to present a methodology that allows the optimal management of Pinus pinea stands to be determined from an economic perspective when both cone and timber production are considered. Thus, a simulation-optimisation method that implements the stochastic masting model together with an optimisation algorithm would help forest managers to optimise stand management under different price scenarios and market conditions.
Hence , the challenge is to integrate a cone yield model into a simulation-optimisation system which is capable to predict expected cone harvests and...
The main response of natural Aleppo pine trees to drought has been studied in three sites on the North-western of Tunisia, in order to assess their capacity to adapt to climate change and overcome the water challenge. This research was based on the evaluation of some physiological traits (xylem conductivity, water potential..), the soil moisture, the water content, and the foliar gas exchange (photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance).