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Evaluation of the biological activities of natural extract from some species of Portulaca grown in Tunisia

Morphological aspect of Portulaca (INRGREF, 2016)

Purslane is known for her gastronomic and medicinal excellences effects. It is considered a miraculous plant with healing properties (Hwess.H et al., 2017). It is very used in traditional medicine, but not well exploited in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to raise awareness also on this wild plant, we have decided to compare many provenances of puslane, using maceration extraction.


Pine cone quality assessment with X-Ray

Inshell pine nuts X-rayed (Pinus pinea)

The objective is to analyze the possibility of modeling the kernel weight from biometric and morphological parameters of the pine nuts from Pinus pinea, measured through X – ray and image analysis. The overall objective is to support the definition of a pine cone quality assessment methodology at the stand/ farm level in order to provide the landowners with tools for pine cone commercialization and increase by this mean the market transparency.


An example of good practice in the aromatic and medicinal plants sector

Mellisa officinalis L.

In order to attract new customers, especially foreign buyers, it is necessary to move away from the usual things and take a step forward. The advancement of technology enables customers to easily access the Internet and inform themselves about various products, and can easily buy it through the web store. It is therefore important to provide customers with something new that is not so common and to tell them the story of the product and to provide them with an overall experience that will go beyond just buying the product.


Optimizing the debarking and cutting schedule of cork oak stands

Cork oak stand in Extremadura (Spain)

Cork is a non-timber forest product of great importance due to its excellent characteristics in terms of insulation, elasticity and sustainability. Spain is the second world producer of cork after Portugal. Traditionally, debarking is carried out at intervals ranging from 9 to 14 years, depending on the area. However, the growth of the cork is not constant over the life of the tree, so uneven debarking intervals may be advisable. Despite its economic importance, no silvicultural schedules exist which are based on optimizing the profitability of these stands. This factsheet provides...



Climatic impact on cork thickness from different trees located in the same stand

Cork samples and cork rings.

The thickness of cork oak trees varies highly, even when they are located in the same geographical location or stand. The objective was to research how climate variables affect different trees within the same site, for which precipitation and temperature variables were considered. The response variable was the cork growth index (cgi) – the cork thickness of the first eight complete growth years were measured after boiling. The differences between trees were characterised by nine different cork thickness quantiles, from lower (thinnest cork) to higher (thickest cork).



Modelling seed germination of five species of Eucalyptus to facilitate optimal reforestation

E.saligna morphological aspect  (A: fruit, B: seed, C: plant (6months after seed sowing) (INRGREF, 2016))

Eucalyptus is an enormous and fascinating genus with over 700 species. Most of Eucalyptus species are known as aromatic plants and with medicinal and melliferous uses. Therefore, it’s important to valorize and ensure a continuous regeneration of Eucalyptus species. In this prospect, the main focus of this work was to evaluate seeds viability used to regenerate forests and in order to elevate its production of NWFP.


Impact of postponing cork extraction on the equivalent annual annuity stands, characterized by varying productivity and cork quality

Cork pile in Portugal.

The minimum interval between 2 successive cork extractions from the same tree is fixed by law as 9 years in Portugal. Postponing cork extraction to more than 9 years is an option that results (or not) in a variation of the cork price (for the same structure of cork prices). Site productivity, cork thickness and quality and discount rate contribute to the profitability of the farm, which may be evaluated, for example, by the equivalent annual annuity (EAA). The objective is to apply the SUBER model to evaluate the influence of the cork debarking rotation period (CDR) variation, from 9 to 11...


Impact of the production method on the gentian resource and its regeneration - The sustainable development approach of the Gentian sector

Large population of gentian on a meadow in the Massif Central (France).

The Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea) is a wild plant harvested for its roots at the age of 20 to 30 years old. It is highly valued but little protected. A large part of the production is exported from the source in its raw state. The "Mission for the sustainable management of gentian resources in the Massif Central", a project promoted by the harvesters, helps the different members of the sector to organize themselves to work on good production practices and to ensure the sustainable use of the plant. This work is enhanced by a parallel project to create a "Sustainable Gentian"...


The carob tree in Tunisia: A big varietal richness to preserve and to valorize

Spontaneous, aged carob tree pruned and grafted at Oueslatia

In addition to their traditional local use in human and animal food, the fruits of the carob tree have a high commercial value in industrial transformation. The demand for fruits and seeds is growing significantly and their commercial value is increasing. It is also an undemanding species, since it is found in various bioclimatic levels (humid, subhumid, semi-arid and arid) and on poor and skeletal soils. The objective of this work is to explore a panel of varieties to be characterized by describing the tree, fruits, and seeds in an illustrated form.


Characterization of Melia azedarach. L (leaves and fruits) and their insecticidal effects (Aphis punicea)

Melia azedarach L. ( tree, leaves & fruits)

Melia azedarach, also called Lilas of indes, classified under the family of Meliaceae. It is an ornamental tree native to India, presented in several countries of tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Tunisia. The objective of this study is the valorization of plant extracts in the manufacture of organic products to minimize the import of chemicals to human health and the environment.


Tools to reduce the risk of poisoning by wild mushrooms

Recommendations for picking and eating mushrooms safely

Poisoning is mostly the consequence of confusion with other edible mushroom species but, in some cases also, of poisonous species collection by people who are totally unaware of the existence of toxic mushrooms therefore not asking for specialized advice before consuming them. Several tools to reduce the number of poisoning by prevention are presented in this factsheet :

- Prevention tools deployed by ANSES (National Agency for Health Security)

- Mobile applications for mushroom recognition


Accessing site productivity in cork oak stands in Portugal

18 years old cork oak stand in Coruche, Portugal.

In recent decades, new cork oak plantation areas have been established in Portugal, not only in the traditional areas of distribution of the species but also in the northern parts. Historical records show that the species was formerly present here, and climatic thresholds suggest a possible occurrence. Cork oak site productivity, assessed through site index, was modelled in relation to soil and climate variables. The models were developed to estimate and map the site index value along the cork oak potential distribution area in Portugal.


Understanding the potential for private sector investment in natural capital in the Spey catchment

The aim of this research was to understand how private sector natural capital investments could be increased and diversified in the Spey catchment. The focus of the study was on businesses that do not primarily manage land, but nevertheless rely on the Spey landscape, e.g. for their supply chain or to attract customers. Specifically, the study tried to answer four questions:
1. How do businesses currently invest in natural capital?
2. What motivates and hinders businesses to invest in natural capital?
3. Is there potential for coordinated business investment in natural...



Energy value of Eucalyptus cultivated in Tunisia

Coal minning at Cap Bon

In rural areas of Tunisia, the average wood consumption per household and per year is between 1.8 and 5.9 tones. The highest consumption was noted in the forest regions of Sejnane, Boussalem and Jendouba. Results show that traditional bread baking represents 60 to 70% of the percentage of wood consumed in households. With a view to satisfying the increasingly growing needs for firewood and charcoal in rural areas, we have initiated a selection research program oriented towards more intensive wood production including wood that can be used for energy purposes. In this work, we propose to...


Conservation and multiplication of Medicago arborea L.

Medicago arborea leafs and flowers

Medicago arborea, a naturalized species, was selected for its pastoral and high ecological interest: it is a nitrogen fixer and cold, drought, and salt-tolerant plant species (Sibole et al. 2003). It tolerates frost conditions and low temperatures as well as drought conditions and high temperatures. It’s an important species regarding its symbiosis with nitrogen fixation bacteria. The species had always demonstrated its importance as a forage species and its quality in feeding the animal.  The main objective of this work is to master the techniques for multiplying and conserving...


Participatory selection of hardy and ink-disease resistant European chestnut trees

Ink disease resistance test on cuttings of chestnut stems

The objectives of this participative research program are:

1: Select surviving European chestnut trees within strong impacted areas by the ink disease

2: Evaluate their resistance against Phytophthora in laboratory, and verify their belonging to sweet chestnut, the species Castanea sativa.

3: Use the individuals showing the best resistance capacities against ink disease (“elite trees”) as seeds producers in seed orchards.

The expected results are:

- Reconquest and renewal of the actually declining chestnut orchards

- Decrease of...


The selection of Eucalyptus with a melliferous vacation in humid and arid environments

Boxes to collect honey (Sejnene-Bizerte) & Eu.camaldulensis (Rimel-Bizerte)

This work aims to promote beekeeping activity in rural areas where eucalyptus can play a leading role as nectar species. This objective necessarily involves the identification of eucalyptus species of melliferous interest and the selection of the most successful species in terms of abundance of flowering, its duration, and its spreading throughout the year.


Good practice guide for sustainable harvesting of wild plants

The main objective of this guide and its booklets for each species is to provide the pickers with knowledge of specific aromatics and medicinal plants and to serve as support for their training to adopt respectful practices guaranteeing sustainable management of the natural resources.

Its construction is based on a collection of knowledge and practices of pickers, analyzed with a group of scientists with regard to sustainable resource management (threats and renewal challenges).

The objective is also to enhance the picking profession by disseminating its knowledge and know-...


Stone pine (Pinus pinea) grafting

Stone pine grafting

There are several requirements and experiences for a successfull graft, that are reviewed in the following from a practical point of view.

In coastal regions like the Portuguese Alentejo or Catalonian Empordà, grafting is usually performed directly in the field on young plantations, by specialised teams of skilled forest workers.  In-nursery grafting on container-raised rootstocks is an alternative, not discussed here, for harsher climate conditions where in situ grafting has a low success rate due to unpredictable spring weather (rain, wind, or late frost in some years,...


The co-management of forest resources in Tunisia: A new approach for sustainable development in the sector of AMP

The co-management of forest resources in Tunisia

In Tunisia all forest areas are public: in order to use forest products, producers and firms should go through a tendering system subject to Article 18 of the Tunisian forestry code, organized each year by the Tunisian Forestry authority. Small firms and the local populations are facing many difficulties to use available resources legally.  The DGF is promoting a new form of sustainable management for forest resources: Concluding contracts between the organized local community and the administration to improve their livelihood and to protect forestal areas. 


From gene to resin

Forest of Epiceas in the north-east of France.

The objective of the project is to provide preliminary information, both bibliographic and ethnological, chemical, genomic, biochemical, technical and economic, in order to assess the relevance of restarting the resin extraction of forest species other than maritime pine to supply the growing societal demand for terpene biomolecules.  


Pine cone moisture and marketing

Stored pine cones

The objective was to evaluate the loss of moisture in pine cone during the storage after harvest, comparing the storage inside a warehouse or just under a shed. This information is intended to support the producer in deciding when to sell, at the beginning, during or at the end of the commercialization campaign, taking into account not only the market price / kg but also the weight loss of the pine cone due to the loss of moisture. 


Antioxidant potential of Pinus nigra Arn needles

P. nigra trials in Souiniet

Pine species are considered as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Pinus nigra Arnold is one of the most known medicinal plants in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to determine, for the first time, the bioactive compounds such as the total phenols, flavonoids and tannins and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of needles collected from nineteen samples corresponding to different provenances of black pine from different regions which have been planted and grown in Northwestern Tunisia.


CULTURTRUF project : Effect of cultural techniques on water balance in truffle orchards and truffle life cycle

A truffle orchard in southern France

CulturTruf was financed by FranceAgriMer (French Agriculture Ministry) from 2016 to 2019. The objective of this project is to understand how water balance, truffle production, and soil truffle DNA evolve in different orchards of T. melanosporum, T. aestivum, T. aestivum var. uncinatum according to technical itineraries adapted to different climates. The aim is to optimize water management in truffle plantations by coupling basic and applied research approaches. In this sense, this project fully responds to a strong demand from the sector to adapt truffle...


Prospecting wild populations of Rosmarinus officinalis in Spain

Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) wild population

The project objective was to identify chemically different Rosmarinus officinalis wild populations present in the Spanish geography in order to be able to choose those that present a higher essential oil concentration with an interesting chemical composition for the industry uses.

Identify these wild populations is the starting point for initiating any breeding program to obtain commercial varieties that can be put into large scale cultivation to satisfy quantity and quality industrial demand. 



Cork carbon footprint: From forest to products

Cork products distribution by cork type, calculated by the Cork Carbon Footprint Model

In the life cycle of cork, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) gases are released from biological material combustion or decomposition as well as from burning fossil fuels. The biogenic carbon emissions from forest-based products are usually not included because they are released into the atmosphere during the processing and end-of-life stages. The carbon footprint for the cork sector should be considered at different stages, from forest management activities, across the manufacturing processes and product distribution, to the product end-of-life.



Thickness assessment and weight modeling of cork in Tunisia: case study of Ain Snoussi forest

Cork stoppers

Estimate reproduction cork thickness as a criterion to examine the commercial value and to fit a non-linear model for predicting cork weight to guide the forest decision makers toward a reasonable harvest.

The objective is to guide forest decision-makers towards a reasonable cork harvest by:

• examining the thickness of cork as a criterion for estimating commercial value

• evaluating the intensity of the debarking operation on the tree

• establishing a non-linear model for predicting cork weight.


Edible below ground fungal fruitbodies in Greece

Greece is a country with dramatic geological relief which makes it one of the richest in biodiversity and habitat types countries in Europe

Greece is a country with dramatic geological relief which makes it one of the richest in biodiversity and habitat types countries in Europe. So far over 100 fungal species with below ground fruitbodies have been discovered in Greece, among them 13 new species for Science, confirming high diversity also in fungi. As we have just began to explore fungi with subterranean fruiting bodies, we are confident that many new species will be recorded in Greece in the near future. The protection of forest ecosystems is vital for hypogeous fungi, such as valuable truffles' conservation.



Cork oak understory vegetation management

Cork oak forest

The cork oak forest management involves interventions in the understory with the following objectives: reduction of the fire risk, operationality of the cork harvesting, promotion of cork oak recruitment and reduction of competition for water and nutrients between trees, herbs and shrubs. The techniques currently available for the forest producer to carry out these operations are: the practice of grazing and / or mechanized interventions (harrowing, shrub cutter, shredding). The choice among several mechanical techniques should consider cork oak sustainability and the potential impacts...


Demonstrating and promoting natural values to support decision-making in Romania

Nature for decision making

The Project “Demonstrating and promoting natural values, to support the decision-making process in Romania” (N4D) was developed based on folowing activities: A1. institutional infrastructure development; A2. Development of the ecosystem mapping and assessment framework in Romania; A3. Data analysis and management under the MAES process;  A4. Biophysical mapping and assessment of ecosystems and of their services;  A5. Project promotion; A6. Knowledge exchange with the neighbouring countries and with Norway, as the country providing the Project financing.


Seasonal variation of photosynthetic parameters of Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in natural Tunisian Aleppo pine forest

Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis

Understanding and quantify the role played by undergrowth in the resilience and adaptation to climate change of the pine forest in Tunisia, by comparing the state of vegetation of the undergrowth species of a pine forest Aleppo at different bioclimatic stages in the southern Mediterranean of Tunisia (Mount of Zaghouan (upper subhumid climate with mild and temperate winters), Mount of Mansour (semi-arid lower to upper arid) and Mount of Sarej (semi-arid upper semi-arid with cold and temperate winter variations)).




Skylark: intensive arable farmers moving towards sustainability

34 case studies were planned by the H2020 PEGASUS project in different farming and forest systems and along the supply chain in 10 EU countries, to: 

  • examine the issues faced in ensuring effective provision of public goods/ecosystem services from farming & forest activities; and 
  • find solutions to enable the economic social and environmental sustainability of the EU’s farmed & forest areas.

Greek truffle trees

Natural habitat of Tuber aestivum in NW Greece

In the last 15 years, there has been a strong interest in truffles in Greece due to high market prices and the ability to cultivate them. In most truffle plantations in Greece, however, the seedlings come from European countries such as Italy, France and Spain, since there is no domestic production. Taking into consideration the issues of imported plant’s adaptability, biodiversity protection and the risk of introducing unwdesired truffle species, we attempted to create the first Greek truffle trees with Tuber aestivum and T. melanosporum in Greek forest species such as oaks, hazelnuts,...


Micophilia in modern Greece. The case of mushroom associations

Snapshot of the 11th mushroom festival organized by the Mushroom Society of Epirus in Ζagori, in June 2019. INCREdible project partners, mushrooms’ members and administration representatives had the opportunity to discuss about mushroom issues bridging different opinions and views.

Greece was until recently considered as a country where mushroom consumption was limited to few species per region. Mushroom were for most Greeks an occasional food, linked to poverty, the "meat of the poor", as they used to call them, that helped rural populations to survive the years of WWII.   However, over the last 20 years the picture has changed dramatically as mushrooms are nowadays at the focus of a broader movement, which integrates individual research artistic-creative and entrepreneurial actions related to mushrooms to an activity with a strong social character.


Establishment of truffle plantations - a new form of economic activity in rural parts of Croatia

'Čepićko polje' in Istria, Croatia - possible area for extensive truffle production

The European Union defines, through several documents, the cultivation and collection of mushrooms and truffles as the primary product in agriculture. There are a number of measures in place in Croatia to encourage primary agricultural production, but truffle farming is not one of them. In order to offer the rural parts of Croatia new economic activity, which can be extremely profitable, it is necessary to draw up a plan for the implementation of the European Directive and to adapt the relevant laws on the basis of professional and scientific research.


Pan European Policy: Conflicts and synergies across Europe

Evaluating how recent and forthcoming EU policy developments affect the levels of ecosystem services (ES) and natural capital (NC) in Europe. Many of Europe's natural habitats and species are in decline. While the EU has a number of policies in place to safeguard habitats and species, losses are ongoing for many habitats, species and associated ecosystem services.


Antioxidant capacity and phenol content of Fraxinus angustifolia leaf and bark extracts

Tree of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. subsp. angustifolia from Nefza

The ultimate objectives of this work were to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants agents in the food industry. This study is the first to investigate secondary metabolites and biological activities of barks and leaves of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. subsp. angustifolia (Oleaceae), Tunisian native tree, from two provenances (Béja and Nefza) were investigated using two solvents extracts (ethanol and distilled water). 



The sociological profile and social issues of the resin worker in Spain

Resin worker showing his work to investigators

The study advances in the socio-labour reality knowledge of the Spanish workers dedicated to the resin extraction, and in the group perception about aspects related to entrepreneurship and sectorial problems.

To this end, three key aspects are elucidated:

  • The definition of the typical resin workers profiles, and the socio-labour situations that characterise each one of them.
  • The study of the key factors for the incorporation and the abandonment of the resin activity.
  • The sounding of sectorial or professional aspects that the workers consider most
  • ...

Intraspecific variability of Quercus suber L. acorn morphology in Northwestern Tunisia

cork oak acorns

The cork oak forest suffers from serious problems of natural regeneration following anthropic action and overgrazing. As a result, we are witnessing continuous aging and disappearance of the oak grove. The object of the investigation is to study the variation of the size of the acorns of Quercus suber collected from different sites according to an altitudinal gradient in Kroumirie (North-West of Tunisia) in order to make the right choice of acorns for a plantation successful and adapted from cork oak.


MicoQr: New App for the wild mushroom trading

The main objective of this application is to provide companies in the mycological sector with a traceability management tool for the purchase of wild mushrooms and fresh truffles from the collector or producer. To identify one more agent in the traceability of the product, by including the collector of wild mushrooms and the space where they have been collected, favoring the control systems in food safety.


Traditional collection and use of medicinal plants in the Knin area

Artemisia absinthium L.

In the past, herbs were the only cure for the disease, and learning about herbs was based only on human experience. They found the medicine in their environment, where they learned to recognize the plants and to determine how to use it. Knowledge and experience have been passed down from generation to generation, so today there are many who, thanks to the knowledge and experience of their loved ones, have become successful users and growers of medicinal plants, although unfortunately some of the knowledge about medicinal plants has probably fallen into oblivion, given that no one ever...


A practical guide to seed multiplication of Anthyllis barba-Jovis L.

Anthyllis barba-jovis from Tabarka region, North-West of Tunisia

Anthyllis barba-jovis is a rare evergreen shrub belonging to the family of Fabaceae and could be found in different habitats, especially along steep rocky cliffs. It is an endemic species originating from the west-central regions of the Mediterranean basin. It’s located in France, Italy, Croatia, Algeria, and Tunisia and grows on low altitudes of the Mediterranean littoral rocks. The main objective of this work is to control the seed propagation techniques of Anthyllis barba-Jovis L.


Is the plasticity in response to the drought of Quercus suber linked to the geographical origin?

Seedlings of provenances of Cork Oak

The selection of forest species and the study of their behavior variability relative to the main environmental conditions change remains a major challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the intraspecific variability responses of Quercus suber L. to drought conditions in order to determine the future sustainability of cork oak forest in Tunisia.


Assessment of resin tapping in pine forests of Castilla y León considering social and environmental values

Resin-tapped Pinus pinaster stand

The pine forests on the sandy plains of inner Spain represent a singular habitat and ecosystem in very poor site conditions. In addition to economic revenue from sustainable biological resources, resin tapping provides other ecological and social benefits from these forests. The present study, resulting from the SUDOE project SustForest, analyses the inclusion of these factors in the assessment of resin resources.




Cultural seascapes: Social-cultural valuation of ecosystem services in Fingal, County Dublin, Ireland

Analysing the expression of socio-cultural values in a coastal setting, considering the contribution that ecosystem service approaches can make within the land use or spatial planning arena. People attach socio-cultural values to the natural environment just as they do to other aspects of life. Cultural ecosystem services are strongly influenced by these values and provide tangible and intangible benefits to people when they interact with nature. Often in decision making the less tangible cultural ecosystem services benefits are overlooked and unaccounted when considering the overall value...


Essential oils of Eucalyptus: Comparative performance and promotion of their use

1. Leaves and flowers of Eucalyptus lehmannii – Arboretum of Korbous / 2.Leaves and flowers of Eucalyptus gillii – Arboretum of HajebLayoun / 3.  Leaves and flowers of Eucalyptus leucoxylon – Arboretum of Korbous

The current exploitation of rosemary and myrtle (native species with relatively high yield of EO) occupies an important place in the forestry sector and a significant socio-economic interest. Eucalyptus trees can play a predominant and substantial role thanks to their richness in essential oils, their composition and their commercial value.

This objective necessarily involves the identification of eucalyptus EO species and the selection of the most efficient in terms of the yield of essential oils and the presence of the most dominant active compounds which are preferentially sought...


PEFC, forest certification for sustainable sources and traceability, an added value for wild food

Edible non wood forest products

The best option for highly atomised sectors is to have a common positioning that brings together as many products as possible, by creating an umbrella brand that provides added value. PEFC Spain enables forest certification for wild products by means of grouping all producers and forest products managed under sustainability criteria under a recognized brand.  This enhances an economic activities compatible with forest conservation and undertaken by thousands of people in Spanish rural areas.

The PEFC certification for wild food chains of custody (CoC) can help to improve the...


Manual cone harvesting of Pinus pinea in Portugal: equipment used and recommendations

Iron tips used to detached the cones from the tree (A), toothed hook of the iron ladder (B); module extension of the iron ladder (C)

Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone harvesting in Portugal continues to occur trough the traditional way, that is, by specialized workers that climb the trees and remove the cones by hand using special tools.

Here we intend to document photographically this traditional knowledge, present  the various tools used by cone pickers in the harvesting process and the materials used to build them. This information can be potentialy usefull in other coutries were cone harvesting is made by small, locally operating family firms.


Lisbon: Masterplan Vale de Alcantara: A green corridor

Lisbon's street trees
  • Enhancing sustainable urbanization
  • Restoring ecosystems and their functions
  • Developing climate change mitigation
  • Developing climate change adaptation; improving risk management and resilience

Over the last few decades, Lisbon has lost a third of its residents (Green Surge: Lisbon case study) as a result of uncontrolled urban development (urban sprawl in the suburbs coupled with depopulation and decaying neighbourhoods in the historical centre). This has led to a deterioration of the quality of life in the city. It is currently facing challenges...


Selection of pine species in Tunisia: Result of the comparative species trials of Souiniet and Djebel Abderrahmen Arboretums

Pinus halepensis

Faced with changes and in the absence of regeneration, the natural forest formations in the North of Tunisia are experiencing serious problems of degradation. The use of pines as alternative species would be a possible and advantageous solution, but the choice should be given in priority to fast-growing species, ecologically well adapted and economically profitable.


"DirfisMushroom P.C.” From Science to the Market

Dirfis mushrooms

Τhe last 15 years, mushrooms became  valuable part of Greek consumers’ diet. New mushroom plants have launched, special cultivated varieties ( Lentinula, Hericium, etc.) have  been considerably growing and many young peoplemake a living  hunting truffles and wild mushrooms . Αfter the economic crisis of 2009, people living in big cities returned to their villages starting business in forestry or agriculture. “Dirfis mushrooms” was established in 2003 in Mount Dirfis (Euboea) by two agronomists-mycologists (Agricultural University of Athens), Lefteris Lachouvaris and Thanassis...


The influence of silvicultural practices on resin production: stand density, tree diameter, and use of controlled fire

Resin tapped stand

Some aspects contribute to the increase of resin tapping costs and, hence, to the reduction of resin yield, namely: the limitation on the diameter of the trees to be tapped imposed by the Portuguese legislation; low stand densities; the necessary control of understory vegetation. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if and how some pine forest management parameters affect the total production of pine resin so it can be increased through silvicultural practices and, thus, compensate for the rise in some costs associated with the resin activity.


Arboretums in Tunisia: importance and interest

Trials of Eucalyptus species

The selection of forest species and the analysis of their behavior variability, considering the main environmental factors, remains a major concern for the forester in Tunisia. This work is prepared to answer the following question: for reforestation needs, which is the most suitable species to reach a sustainable and productive plantation? The answer can be provided in the elimination trials in the arboretum. The arboretums offer an ideal experimental support to know the requirements of the forest species and to make a selection in favor of the best adapted and the most efficient species...


Enhancement of Croatian forest ecosystem services through assessment of fungal diversity based on DNA barcoding with special emphasis to Tuber eastivum (summer truffle)

Mixed forest of northern Croatia

Enhancement of Croatian forest ecosystem services through assessment of fungal diversity based on DNA barcoding is a four-year project financed by the Croatian Science Foundation with the objective of exploring fungal diversity of Croatian forests through the DNA barcoding methods, aimed to analyze its impact on forest ecosystem services. Research institute ‘Ruđer Bošković’ from Zagreb, Croatia is the lead partner on this project that started in October, 2018.


Maritime pine silvicultural models - what do we know?

Resin tapped maritime pine stand

In Portugal, traditionally, the maritime pine is the species exploited to obtain resin. The silvicultural models used assume timber as the main product and resin as the secondary product, this being a periodic and annual source of income for the owner. The description of silvicultural models that make timber and resin exploitation compatible is essential and should be based on knowledge.



Tree damage control in a cork oak forest

Cork oak trunk damage by mechanical operation

Reducing the amount of damages in the cork oak forest is very important in terms of the sustainability of this ecosystem. Although some of the wounds may have a natural origin (e.g. lightning), most of them have a human source linked to the management operations. The cicatrisation rate of the wounds differs from tree to tree, according to wound size, the tree vitality and the time of the year (5). The establishment of simple recommendations for the forest managers to identify the potential risks associated with the operations and consequences of these wounds can contribute to increase the...



Longal Chestnut - the potential of a traditional regional variety from Portugal's Terra Fria Transmontana

Leaves, burr and chestnuts of the Longal variety

Chestnuts are an extremely important product for the Portuguese region 'Terra Fria Transmontana', representing one of the most profitable crops today. Its commercialization is still done based solely on caliber, an essential characteristic to satisfy a consumer little informed about the diversity of existing varieties. Longal is a traditional regional variety from PDO Castanha da Terra Fria, with excellent characteristics for fresh consumption and the processing industry. It is important to work on its promotion with consumers and producers.


Odor origin of fresh and processed truffles

With the fluctuation of truffle market, the prices of truffles for restaurants and/or for end consumers can be very variable. This implies the use of less expensive truffle based additions, such as truffle oils and tartufatas (mixture or mushrooms and truffle, used as side dishes, or as a main ingredient for truffle based pates and sauces). Since the odor of fresh truffles are volatile and more mild than their replacements (truffle oils), the objective of this text is to educate the end consumer on differences between the raw truffle material and processed ingredients found in grocery...


Threats and concerns in the management of stone pine in Portugal: insights from a survey among stakeholders

Results of the survey

The forest area of stone pine, Pinus pinea, has increased significantly in Portugal in the last 30 years, following the same trend of other Mediterranean countries. At the same time, forest stakeholders report losses in cone production and yield and question on the best management practices to face a already changing climate.

During a Science to Practice event entitled "Stone pine and pine nuts: more knowledge for a better management" held in Lisbon in October 2019, we conducted a survey were we were able to assess the stakeholders' concerns with the pine nut value chain...


Summer truffle (Tuber aestivum) potential and development opportunities in Croatia

Natural habitat of summer truffle

Croatia is a world famous destination for its truffle collection in wild and the truffle sector is well developed. However, although Croatia is a small country, truffle production is in fact concentrated only in the Istrian region and has not been developed in the rest of the country. In other parts of the country, very few people are involved in collecting truffles (summer truffles) and this is actually more of a hobby for them than a source of income. Therefore, it was important to conduct a survey to determine where summer truffle could be found and in what quantities, and the results...


Assessing and mapping ecosystem services in the mosaic landscapes of the Maltese Islands

...

The present ecosystem services assessment and mapping has been mainly scientifically-driven, with the objective of this study being that of carrying out a first assessment of the capacity and flow of ES in the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean). ES capacity is defined as the potential of ecosystems to provide services appreciated by humans, while ES flow refers to the actual use of the ES and occurs at the location where an ES enters within a utility or production function.

Given the insular and urbanised environment, and the dependence on local ecosystems for


Intraspecific variability and genetic selection of Aleppo pine

Aleppo pine provenance trial in the comparative plantation of Jbel Abderrahmane - Cap Bon

Aleppo pine is one of the dominant forest species in Tunisia, favoured by its great regeneration capacity, plasticity, climatic stress tolerance, and multiple products: wood, edible seeds, vegetable seed oil, essential oils from leaves. For these reasons it has been used massively as for reforestation.

But  the wide geographical distribution of the species might imply variation in adaptive and productive traits. The use of genetic material well adapted to the environment and better performing allows for valorization of the resource and offers a guarantee of success for new...


Assessment of tapping performance on Some pine species in Tunisia

Aleppo Pine forest (Djebel Sarj)

The main objective of the present investigation is to explore the knowledge and the best practices of resin extraction technics in rural areas and marginal environment in order to promote the live condition of the population in these different regions by providing secure incomes and good working conditions. This could lead to the best evaluation of the good performance of the three most important pine species in North-western of Tunisia to resin extraction.



Pine resin tapping in Tunisia

Resin tapping technique (Forest center of Sidi Bader - Tabarka)

Resin is a natural product that has multiple applications and is highly demanded in the chemical industry. As a non-timber forest product, exploitation of the abundant pine resin in Tunisian forests (50% of the forest area) can contribute to a bioeconomy and can generate additional income for forest populations.


Portuguese resin tapping legislation

Depth of wounds, height of the first wound, distance between the rows

In order to ensure the sustainability of the exploitation of pine resin and to guarantee that it is guided by good management practices - promoting the vitality of pine forests and forest protection practices, contributing with relevant annual revenues - it was considered necessary, in Portugal, to define a legal regime, simplifying and concentrating all the rules in a single legal document. This legislation is an essential knowledge tool for authorities and economic agents, focusing on the production, exploitation and dynamics of resin from the forest to the industrial processing unit.




Valorisation of Ziziphus jujuba fruits

Ziziphus jujuba tree (experimental station-Rouhia)

Ziziphus jujuba, known as Chinese jujube, is a highly valued plant native to China. Three species are known in Tunisia: Ziziphus lotus, Ziziphus spina-christi and Ziziphus jujuba. The Ziziphus jujuba also known as “anneb” is the most popular specie. This tree (Figure 1), with 10 cm of length and 50 cm of diameter, offer a delicious read fruit (jujube) that was consumed fresh, dried and processed (jams, loaf, cakes, etc.). The aim of this study was to attempt, for the first time, the chemical compositions of Z. jujuba fruits...


Improvement and development possibilities in cultivation of aromatic and medicinal plants

Producer of AMP

In most cases, the cultivation and production of lavender in Croatia is not a permanent job, but rather small plantations that generate additional household income. A large proportion of small producers, therefore, sell raw materials or semi-finished products resulting in lower economic profits. If they were able to produce the final product and market it then the economic profit would be higher. Increasing economic profit would certainly be a good incentive to increase production, and thus growing aromatic and medicinal plants would become a core business and would no longer be a hobby or...


Innovative initiatives in the forest sector applied to the resin sector

LiDAR image of a forest stand. (c) Rafael Alonso

The objective of this document is to highlight the importance of different initiatives, techniques and tools that have been presented by different organizations, both public and private, through the different transfer events that have taken place within the INCREDIBLE project. The aim is to provide a global vision of the different fields to explore in the resin sector.


Cork oak harvesting logistics

Cork collection and transportation

Improving the competitiveness of the cork oak producers, by improving the quality of the production process and the sustainability of the cork oak forest, by introducing new innovative methods and practices applied to the various stages of the production process and commercialization of the raw material, are essential to guarantee the vitality in the sector. 

The profitability of the debarking, transportation and storage operations by promoting or increasing the efficiency of the processes along the potential value chain, with bring greater valorization of the raw material and...



Medicinal sage (Salvia officinalis L.): use, cultivation and opportunities

Medicinal sage is an native plant species of Dalmatia spread throughout the Mediterranean. In the Republic of Croatia along the entire coast, as well as in the entire Dalmatia. Sage is first and foremost a medicinal plant, but it is also used as a spice. In Dalmatia, sage was used long before the classical period, in the nature its leaves were collected from which essential oil was obtained, and the beginnings of cultivation date to the early 20th century on the island of Hvar. Today in Dalmatia there is no production of dried leaves and essential sage oil, except to a lesser extent on...


Classical biological control of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus in France

Distribution map of the Torymus sinensis experimental releases done between 2011 and 2014 in continental France and Corsica (rescaled in box). Red circles, 1x100 females released; green circles, 2x50 females released; blue circles, 1x1 000 females released; purple circles, 2x110 females released

The objective of the project was to implement in France a classical biological program against the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Dk), using releases of the exotic parasitoid Torymus sinensis. The expected outcome of this project were (i) the permanent establishment of the parasitoid and (ii) an efficient and long-term control of the pest.


Intraspecific variability and genetic selection of cork oak in Tunisia

Cork oak plantation - Tunisia

In Tunisia, the cork oak is facing various difficulties namely: severe ecological conditions, very heterogeneous stands with variable density, and strong pressure on the forest. Reforestation has become an essential alternative to regenerate old cork oak forests and to support natural regeneration. Selecting adequate plant material with good genetic quality is important to ensure high adaptation to environmental hazards. In this context, the main objective is to explore and evaluate the genetic variability among different stands to select and conserve the best genetic material. 


Grevena, the town of mushrooms

Characteristic landscape around Grevena town

Over the last 20 years, an unprecedented phenomenon of micophilia is recorded in Greece, accompanied by remarkable social, economic, cultural and research activity. The focus of this activity is Grevena, a small town of 13,500 inhabitants at an altitude of 530 meters at the northeastern end of the North Pindos National Park, in Western Macedonia. In recent years Grevena has been considered in the consciousness of the Greeks as synonymous with mushrooms and it is recognized today as the undisputed mushroom capital of the Balkans.


The cork humidity parameter in the commercialization

Pilled cork after debarking

The humidity of cork has always been a parameter considered in its commercialization, and is usually expressed as a percentage discount on the total cork quantity. Percentual moisture discounts are usually incorrectly applied, as they are applied directly to the quantity of cork. The same discount applied to cork with different moisture's content can translate into discounts in quantity of cork and not water.

This factsheet intents to inform the cork producers for the relevance of cork sampling for moisture content determination in order to establish the humidity discount in the...


Consume chestnut all year? The potential of processed products

Marron - Oficina da Castanha

Chestnut is a seasonal nut only produced in some regions of Portugal. It is a product whose value is very scattered across the various elements of the marketing chain, with little, and very concentrated in time, internal consumption. It is, therefore, vital to increase and retain its added value and make this market less dependent on the seasonality of the fruit. One way is by promoting new forms of consumption in and out of season, through the processing and innovative uses of the chestnut.


Guide to the application of the territorial contract for resin tappers, an innovative institutional support formula for the natural resin sector

Pruning is a complementary work to the activity of resin extraction.

The autonomous resin tapper trade is precarious due to factors such as the seasonality of the activity, the fluctuation of resin prices, some resination campaigns are even below the profitability threshold, and the difficulty of accessing complementary sources of income.

To support the sustainability of the resin tapper job, this guide proposes a model of territorial contract tailored to this group of workers, which can be used by public administrations to supplement their income through the remuneration of specific commitments and recognition of the positive externalities generated...


Optimisation techniques of multiplication of Periploca angustifolia L.

 Periploca angustifolia de la region de Sebikha-Kairouan, Tunisie

The Periploca angustifolia is a native shrub widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. This species is threatened because of its medicinal properties, its pastoral interest and its role in the fight against soil erosion. The main objective of this work is to master the germination and multiplication techniques of Periploca angustifolia L.


How to prevent Platypus cilindrus attacks?

Platypus signs on cork oak tree

Cork oak vitality, namely the plagues and diseases, is one of the main concerns of forest producers, with the platypus being one of the pests mentioned in Portugal as a factor responsible for the mortality of cork oak trees.

The knowledge of the pest as well as the means/techniques of combat available, its form of use and the characteristics of the cork oak forests that make them more susceptible to the platypus are some of the proposals to be addressed in this document and in the PLATISOR project (Methods for the management of cork oak forest with «Platypus cylindrus» atacks in the...


Effect of Short and Long Term Irrigation with Treated Wastewater on Chemical Composition and Herbicidal Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Essential Oils

General view of the plot irrigated by treated wastewater since 2005 in the treatment plant El-Hamma and cultivated by Eucalyptus camaldulensis aged around ten years

The aim of this work was  to evaluate the effect of treated wastewater short and long-term irrigation on essential oil composition from E. camaldulensis Dehn in order to detect allelopathic impacts on seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus hybridus L, Chenopodium album L, Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv and Lolium perenne L as important weeds on many crops.


Tourist valorization of aromatic cultures in contemporary tourism

Permanent exhibition of the pharmacy exhibition in Istria

The subject of this research is aromatic, medicinal and spicy cultures as part of cultural heritage and tradition. The research goal is to examine the possibilities of developing cultural, rural, health and wellness tourism based on cultural heritage. All these forms of tourism are developing rapidly because they have an important economic, social, cultural, educational and scientific role. Istria as part of Croatia belong to the Mediterranean area, the cradle of aromatic, medicinal and spicy cultures that can significantly contribute to the creation of new tourist attractions and product...


Tunisian Salvia officinalis essential oils: Variations regarding plant organs, harvest season and drying conditions

Salvia officinalis leaves

This study presents an assessment of essential oils amounts and quality obtained from Tunisian Salvia officinalis and its variations regarding the plant organs, the harvest season and the plant's drying process conditions. Three drying processes were tested,  natural air drying, hot air convective drying at two temperature 40 and 60°C and microwave drying at 218 W. 


SiResin - Resin Information System

The beginning: resin tapping

The Decree-Law nº 181/2015, defines the legal regime for the resin activity and circulation of pine resin in Continental Portugal. The regime requires prior notification to the Portuguese Institute for Nature Conservation and Forestry (ICNF) of resin tapping, resin import and export, resin transportation and storage and resin used by 1st transformation industry. The communication is made online through the Resin Information System (SiResin):

https://fogos.icnf.pt/manifesto/TipoLinksEntradalist.asp


Adding knowledge to the impact and ecology of the seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, on stone pine

Adult L. occidentalis on a stone pine cone

There is still a substantial lack of knowledge about the effective impact and the ecology of the seed bug, Leptoglosus occidentalis, on the Mediterranean stone pine. Thus, the overall objective was to characterize the impact and study the ecology of this invasive insect in stone pine by (1) characterizing its damage on seeds with shell; (2) testing its preference between stone pine and other Mediterranean pines; (3) evaluating damage in Stone pine seed orchards under different management strategies and (4) inferring invasion routes of this insect in the Iberian Peninsula using...



Resin in Spanish National Forest Inventory, Statistics and Planning

The objective is to present the different initiatives that exist at the national level in Spain to characterize resin production and the potential of this resource. These initiatives, framed within the Spanish Forest Statistics defined in the Spanish Forest Law 43/2003, include both production statistics and characterization of the forest resources that either produce or could potentially produce resin.


Mass multiplication of ink-resistant chestnut clones by photoautotrophic micropropagation

Nursery of Maceda - Tragsa (Ourense,Spain)

Chestnut ink disease, caused by root pathogens (Phytophthora sp. ),  induces dieback and mortality in sweet chestnut, C. sativa. Classical biological control can be efficient using ink resistance rootstocks that block the entrance of the fungus.

In this context, selected ink-resistant chestnut clones need to be propagated massively. Here, a method is presented for multplication and rooting clones under photoautotrophic conditions.


Modeling Aleppo pine water balance under two Tunisian climate conditions

Natural Aleppo Pine forest (Djebel Zaghouen- Zaghouen)

Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is one of the most drought-tolerant pine species and it is distributed over large drought-prone Mediterranean regions. The determination of the water balance of the soil-crop-climate and its fluctuation is difficult to achieve, due to the spatial variation in site conditions (Schiller and Cohen, 1998). The objectives of this study are to (1) estimate crop water requirements (ETc) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of Tunisian Aleppo pine and (2) study the impact of climate change on water balance, using the WEAP-MABIA Module (Yates et al.,...


Legal framework and proposal for management and certification of wild mushrooms in Greece

In order to formulate new regulations for updating relevant existing forest, rural and commercial legislation for the collection, certification and trade of Wild Edible Mushrooms (WEM) in Greece, an expert working group was set up in2015 by the Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Ministry of Rural Development and Food. The experts compiled a special report which reviews and evaluates European and national legislation, investigating possible similarities, differences or gaps proposing innovating ways to boost rural economies, while ensuring their sustainable harvesting</p>


Inter-tree competition patterns in un-debarked cork oak stands in Portugal

Young cork oak stand (at Machuqueira do Grou, Coruche, Portugal), with 19 years-old.

Assess inter-tree competition in permanent plots established in un-debarked, even-aged stands located in Portugal by i) comparing with the self-thinning line and ii) assessing when stand density affects cork production, iii) stand structure and iv) tree relative growth rate (RGR) pattern over tree size. Spacing coefficient (SC) values < 1.25 are assumed to affect cork production; therefore, detecting when stand density is approaching this value is important. Relative spacing (RS) is easier to evaluate, being important to find the RS value equivalent to a SC = 1.25.


Estimate of the quantity of cork on pile in Tunisia

- Defining a simple and reliable methodology for the quantitative evaluation of stacked cork at cork parks that will serve as a mean of controlling the quantity weighed previously,

- Create a database at each cork park to determine the weight of a cubic meter of cork reproduction.

- Train forest technicians to generalize this method on all cork parks in Tunisia from the 2020 harvest.


Seed Propagation Techniques of Myrtus communis L.

Flowers and leaves of Myrtus

The Myrtus communis L. is an endemic species appreciated traditionally for its medicinal and aromatic properties. Improving the multiplication and propagation methods of the common myrtle is the most important objective of this paper. The work was held to conserve the species and its decreasing populations due to the lake of management, overcutting and Anthropozoic pressure in its location area. 


Closterocerus chamaeleon a biological control agent of the eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli

Female Ophelimus maskelli & Female Closterocerus chamaeleon

Among essential oils, Eucalyptus oil, is one of the most useful as it is easily extractable commercially (industrial value) and possesses a wide range of desirable properties worth exploiting for pest management. Eucalyptus oils are mainly extracted from leaves which can be attacked by gall wasps as Ophelimus maskelli. Induced galls can affect the essential oil production.

This work aims to determine the role of the parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon in the biological control of its host O. maskelli.


Seasonal variation of antioxidative molecules and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in Tunisia

Distribution of Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in natural Tunisian Aleppo pine forest.

In light of the great global interest in PAM as a source of active ingredients. So, it is important to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis by evaluating of some biochemical responses in three sites Mount of Zaghouan (DZ), Mount of Mansour (DM) and Mount of Sarej (DS) and to compare their behavior in the three seasons (spring, summer and autumn).


Study of antimicrobial activity of pine resin in Tunisia

Laboratory of the sylvo-pastoral institute of Tabarka

The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents could be considered as very promoting products for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives.

The objective of the present investigation was mainly focused on the assessment of the biological performance of the resin. Therefore, the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the three Tunisian pine species Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea, and Pinus halepensis were conducted in order to control four pathogenic bacteria species.



Study of antioxidant activity of pine resin in Tunisia

Resin flow (Forest center of Sidi Bader - Tabarka)

The exploitation of pine forests in Tunisia which covered up to 50% of the total forest area could contribute and generate additional income sources for forest populations. Until now, the resin extraction knowledge was very limited and outdated. In the present study, the assessment of the biological performance of the resin was the main objective in order to detect the antioxidant activity of three pine species in the Tunisian forest.


GOSUBER innovation project for the mechanization of cork debarking

Prototype for debarking mechanization

The objective is to present GOSUBER, the supra-autonomous operational group of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) in the area of Agricultural productivity and Sustainability, which aims to modernize debarking to make it more productive and improve occupational health and safety conditions. The group comprises 13 partners, including private companies, associations, research centres, universities and foundations.


Organic grass-fed beef in Estonia

34 case studies were planned by the H2020 PEGASUS project in different farming and forest systems and along the supply chain in 10 EU countries, to: 

  • examine the issues faced in ensuring effective provision of public goods/ecosystem services from farming & forest activities; and 
  • find solutions to enable the economic social and environmental sustainability of the EU’s farmed & forest areas.

Experiences and issues in growing and harvesting lavender

Manual harvesting of lavender

For the most part, growing lavender in Croatia comes down to small producers who make it an extra household income. Collecting lavender is the most important part of production because it provides raw material for later processing. Manual harvesting of lavender generate its yield as only the top part of the plant with the highest concentration of essential oil is harvested. The problem with mechanical harvesting is that the machine is not so precise and cannot be adjusted to collect only the top parts of the plant.




Pine cone weight interannual variation

Pine cone average weight between 2015 e 2020 in 8 sites located in Ribatejo (Portugal)

This factsheet aims to highlight the interannual variation of the pine cone dimensions and present some factors that explain it, in order to contribute for the future establishment of silvicultural measures than can lead to a decrease in that variation, by promoting the conditions for bigger pine cones or selecting more suitable Forest Reproduction Materials (FRM) . 


The AFC : Structuring harvesting professionals to promote sustainable and respectful management

Cueilleurs d'Arnica montana

AFC is the French Association of professionals wild plants pickers. It was created in 2011 to bring together professionals of wild plants picking and to promote this profession.
It defends sustainable commercial harvesting and a responsible profession.
It wishes to ensure the representativeness of the pickers with other operators in the sectors and the public authorities.


A Mushroom Museum in Greece and its products

Τhe Museum is located in Kalambaka, a small town in Thessaly region, by Meteora, a rock formation hosting one of the largest and most precipitously built complexes of Eastern Orthodox monasteries. The area is included on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The Natural History Museum of Meteora and Mushroom Museum has been established in December 2014, in Kalambaka, Greece. It is a private museum that stems from the collaboration of three people sharing the same interests about nature. The Museum’s collections consist of about 350 species of animals and 250 species of mushrooms and their natural habitats that are presented into dioramas. Beyond its general objectives (to highlight natural heritage, enhance environmental awareness, organize educational activities etc.), the Museum aims to focus on the closest relationship among mushrooms,...


The Value Chain of Aleppo Pine Seeds and the Value Added of Vegetable Oil Extracted from Seeds

Aleppo pine seeds & Vegetable oil extracted from Aleppo pine seeds

Aleppo pine seeds (commonly called Zgougou) derive all their originality and nobility from the fact that they are consumed by Tunisians as part of their cooking habits. Zgougou is considered one of the most interesting NWFP due to socio-economic role and commercial value.  Aleppo pine seed oil can be extracted as for nutrition, or for medicinal and cosmetic uses.

The present work studies the conditions of exploitation of seeds in the forest, the yield of vegetable oil extracted, its physicochemical qualities and the possibilities of valorizing the press cake obtained after...


GO PinusResina

Monthly new wounds

The PinusResina initiative aims to identify/establish new value chains for the competitive and safe transformation and recovery of pine resin in high value-added products, with the mission of increasing the competitiveness and sustainability of Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea forest in Portugal, in particular by enhancing resin constituents for new fine chemistry markets - resin chemical industry as the main economic factor in pine ecosystems; toxicity assessment of derived products; analyze the variability of resin composition, biotransformation and the exploitable...


Land use legacies: Land use and ecosystem service scenarios in the Grenoble Urban Area

Analysing future land use trajectories and their effects on networks of biodiversity and ecosystem services for the Grenoble urban area. It will offer a better knowledge of mechanisms underpinning ecosystem services as well as analysing trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity, critical ecosystem services and territorial management. Further it will facilitate appropriation of tools and concepts by stakeholders and support the integration of the complexity of ecological functioning into debates on territorial planning and management.


Regulation of chestnut blight by hypovirulent strains

Symptoms of chestnut blight caused by: (1) non-virus-infected strains of Cryphonectria parasitica. (2) by virus-infected strains of Cryphonectria parasitica "hypovirulent" strains

A method is resented to reduce the severity of cankers caused by chestnut blight,  Cryphonectria parasitica. This pathogenic fungus penetrates and necroses cortical tissues, which provoke mortality of adult trees aerial parts and failure of grafting.

In the 1970s, French researchers developed a biological control method using hypovirulent strains of the fungus. Since then, a research programme at INRA conducted with several organisations (Chambers of Agriculture, Union of Chestnut production Associations, the Forest Health Department) aims at clarifying and improving...


Ecosystem Services Community Scotland (ESCom)

This exemplar aims to: Map and describe existing and potential use and non-use community-held values of the estuary; Elicit community-held preferences and willingness to pay for coastal land use and management on landscape-scale; Test impacts of deliberation on preferences for estuarine land in a workshop setting; Contextualise study findings through institutional analysis; Identify ecosystem values held by land-owners and their attitudes towards coastal realignment; Understand future visions for the estuaries from diverse stakeholders; Test operational potential and impact of valuation...


Lignite mine reclamation through cultivation of AMP

Lavender cultivation

Electric power production from coal combustion still accounts for a great proportion of total energy production in Europe. The Public Power Corporation S.A is the largest power producer and distributor in Greece and for more than 70 years manages a great coal mining area, the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia. The coal mining procedure leads to the formation of disturbed lands in coal mines, mainly in the places of soil depositions, the implication of a viable reclamation practice of whom is very critical.


Santiago Perea S.L ., a history of innovation in the pine nut sector

Mediterranean pine nuts. (c) Santiago Perea S.L.

The success story of the company Santiago Perea S.L. in the processing of pine nuts  in Andalusia (Southern Spain) is presented here. The commitment of this company to innovation since its creation in 1950 has led to its outstanding positioning in the sector. The main milestones in the history of the company and the most notable elements of its business model are described below.


What are the main variables influencing cork thickness?

Permanent plot installed in a 20 year's old cork oak plantation (Évora, Portugal)
  1. Evaluate the influence of tree size, stand characteristics, debarking coefficients and climatic variables on cork thickness and its evolution between consecutive cork extraction operations, i.e. between successive cork growth periods (cgp). Cork growth is assessed using the cgi, defined as the radial width of the first eight complete years of cork growth after stripping.
  2. Assess the impact of the increase in debarking intensity on cork growth. Debarking intensity is quantified by the cork debarking coefficient – the ratio of the vertical debarking height to the perimeter at
  3. ...

Best practices for seed multiplication of Hedysarum coronarium L.

Sulla flower and leaves

The sulla is a herbaceous bi or multiannual Mediterranean forage species. It’s used as hay, ensilage, or pasture. The sulla is a species that valorizes poor soils and helps in restoring their fertility. Also, it’s a useful plant regarding restoring and promoting eroded soil. The main objective of this work is to master the techniques of multiplication and conservation of this species.



Stone pine cone production estimated by Terrestrial Laser Scanner

Point cloud obtained from a Terrestrial Laser Scan.

The objective of the present study is to better understand the relationship between tree characteristics and cone production of Mediterranean stone pine. This was achieved by quantifying the gain in using detailed crown metrics in estimating cone production at individual tree level (number of cones per tree and average cone weight). Models based on traditional variables (tree size and stand characteristics) were compared to models that relied on crown metrics extracted from TLS data. The resulting models should help owners and managers to better predict cone production.


Mercasetas/Mercatrufas: Linking producers with consumers.

Tuber melanosporum production area

MERCASETAS and MERCATRUFAS are fundamentally tools for the promotion and commercialization of the mycological resource and an opportunity to approach and encourage the consumption of these products among the attending public.

MERCATRUFAS is a market for Black Truffles (Tuber melanosporum) with a mycological character, being the meeting point between the truffle grower and the final consumer, who is guaranteed about the origin and quality of all the truffles with strict quality controls.

MERCASETAS is a new concept of market of mycological products, mainly oriented to...


Estimating cork stocks through the National Forest Inventory

Quercus suber stand in Extremadura

In the current context in which it can be perceived that climate change is already a reality, one of the issues that most concerns the different sectors dedicated to non-timber forest products (NWFP) is the long-term availability of these forest products, so that a constant supply is ensured. It is important to know the provision of NWFP at the present time in order to know or estimate their future evolution. A key tool in this regard is the National Forest Inventories (NFI). Spanish NFI are a robust, objective and comparable source of information, ideal for carrying out this type of...


Post-fire presence and dynamics of xylophagous insects on cork oak ecosystems

Montado landscape after fire (Grândola, 2017).

Cork oak ecosystems have been experiencing a serious decline in the last decades attributed to different causes, including wildfires. After fire trees may become particularly vulnerable to forest pests, which may further affect the vigor of surviving trees and give rise to massive dispersing offspring affecting surrounding areas, but this was rarely assessed in Mediterranean oak ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the presence and dynamics of xylophagous insects on cork oak forests following fire in central Portugal.


Control and certification of ecological medicinal and aromatic plants in Croatia

Immortelle plantation

The role and importance of organic production lie in the sustainable management of natural resources (preserves soil fertility, flora and fauna, water and atmosphere), forbids the use of chemical means of protection and fertilizers, restoring balance to nature and thus preserves biodiversity, encourages rural development and facilitates the development of small family farms, contributes to the development of eco-tourism and eco-villages and thus links agricultural, tourism and craft activities.


Artisanal value of wood and roots of E.loxophleba of El Hanya Arboretum - Sousse

Roots of Eucalyptus loxophleba and Specimens collected

In Tunisia, handicrafts based on local wood are mostly from olive wood. Due to its physical, mechanical and aesthetic qualities, olive wood is highly sought and appreciated by artisans and buyers. In front of the growing demand for this wood, local people do not hesitate to resort to illicit cuts to satisfy the needs of the market. The objective of this study is to search for forest species offering wood qualities that rival those of olive wood and that can be valorized for artisanal use.



New business models for innovating the cork sector and contrasting cork oak woodland abandonment

Abandoned cork oak stands

This example show cases the possibility that some private companies, interested in processing cork, wood chips and wood, take-up forest management on behalf of private or public forest owners in a new private-private or private-public business model. This ensures the conservation of largely abandoned cork oak woodlands. The agreement foresees the possibility for the processing industry to ensure the mid and long-term supply of cork.



Improvement of carob cultivation techniques

Carob pods

The carob tree cultivation is handicapped by the poor quality of the seedlings leaving the nursery due to the deterioration of the root system, and poor root quality is indeed a factor of failure when placing plants in the field. The objective of this work is to study the effect of root excision to address the problem of the pivotal nature of the root system and mycorrhization to improve the physiological quality of plants at the nursery stage and increase their chance of success in planting.


Ecophysiological study in three sites of natural Aleppo pine forests.

Natural Aleppo Pine forest (Djebel Serej- Siliana)

The main response of natural Aleppo pine trees to drought has been studied in three sites on the North-western of Tunisia, in order to assess their capacity to adapt to climate change and overcome the water challenge. This research was based on the evaluation of some physiological traits (xylem conductivity, water potential..), the soil moisture, the water content, and the foliar gas exchange (photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance).


Cork oak mortality management

Cork oak sudden death phenomena

It is not possible to separate the cumulative effect of: climate change, soil conditions, cultural practices and the presence of biotic agents, the way the trees die, due to progressive decrepitude or sudden death, as well as the physiological processes involved that are necessarily different and must be treated differently when deciding on the urgency and the period of dead trees felling, the management of the wood material, forestry residues and subsequent options for afforestation, natural regeneration or conversion to another species.

This factsheet aims to highlight some of the...


FSC certification: granting access to payment for ecosystem services in cork oak woodlands

Cork oak woodlands

This project aims to assess the effects of FSC certification on the conservation of cork oak woodlands namely how certified conservation zones (areas of lower management intervention) affect oak natural regeneration, understory shrub diversity, conservation of water streamlines and associated bird diversity. In addition, at a larger scale, the project also aims to identify geographical areas of conservation value for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Resulting information will contribute to identify target areas to implement payment for ecosystem services schemes using FSC certification...


Clonal variation in susceptibility to Leptoglossus occidentalis in grafted Stone pine plantations

Leptoglossus seed bug instars feeding on a cone (left). Insect-proof cages (right)

Some experiments conducted at the Institute of Agri-Food Research and Technology of Catalonia (IRTA), aimed at evaluating the productive capacity of Stone pine clones from different Spanish provenance regions (PR) under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heideman attack, are presented. This pest is severely affecting Stone pine stands in the Iberian Peninsula, hence, identifying genotypes less susceptible to L. occidentalis attack is an important line of research in this area.



Managing the deposition of harbour maintenance dredging sludge in a Wadden Sea Natura 2000 area

Examining management scenarios related to the maintenance of a marina at the Dutch Wadden Sea Island Schiermonnikoog. Identifying how ecosystem services (ES) in a Natura 2000 area would be affected by different ways of depositing the dredging sludge. Gathering stakeholder feedback to advance the ES approach.


Technical standardization of resin tapped pine wood for structural use

(General description of the picture?)

The standardisation study facilitates the inclusion of wood from resin tapped pines in the Spanish standard UNE 56544 (Visual classification of sawn wood for structural use. Coniferous wood), in order to favour its use and marketing as structural wood.

Simultaneously, the study compares the physical-mechanical properties of resinated Pinus pinaster wood against non-resin wood under the same normative parameters (UNE 56544), so that the technical buyer can evaluate which product is the most suitable for the intended application.


STRADIVERNIS: study of an organic source varnish based on colophane of maritime pine and linen oil

Violin, in reference to the famous violin maker Antonio Stradivario

The aim of the project is to develop an industrially producible bio-sourced varnish based on gum rosin and linseed oil, inspired by the ancient know-how of the violin maker Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737). The difficulty is to meet the specifications of an industrial manufacture while achieving high performance of the varnish.